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Major outcomes of climate conferences

1995 – Berlin, Germany
Beginning of negotiations on the Framework Convention and creation of a work plan for future action.

1997 – Kyoto, Japan
Adoption of the Kyoto Protocol, a binding international agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in industrialised countries.

2000 – The Hague, Netherlands
Conference marked by tensions and disputes over ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and concluded without an agreement.

2005 – Montreal, Canada
Agreement is reached on a roadmap to negotiate a new international agreement after the Kyoto Protocol expires in 2012.

2009 – Copenhagen, Denmark
A joint commitment is made to mobilise resources of $100 billion per year starting in 2020 to assist developing countries in implementing mitigation and adaptation measures.

2015 – Paris, France
Adoption of the Paris Agreement, a global treaty committing countries to work together to limit the rise in global average temperature ‘well below’ 2°C compared to pre-industrial levels.

2016 – Marrakech, Morocco
Implementation of the Paris Agreement and acceleration of actions to tackle climate change.

2018 – Katowice, Poland
Operational details are set out to implement the Paris Agreement, including monitoring obligations and reporting by countries on their mitigation actions.

2021 – Glasgow, United Kingdom
National commitments on emission reductions and financing to help the most disadvantaged countries deal with the impacts of climate change are strengthened.

These are just some of the milestones in the history of the Climate Conferences. Each COP has been a pivotal moment for the international community in tackling climate change and negotiating agreements for a sustainable future.